With molar pregnancies, instead of the normal placenta, several cysts in a form of cluster are developed. Chances are there is no embryo, or it is heavily damaged. Molar pregnancy never leads to a healthy baby. Molar pregnancy occurs as a mistake in the fertilization process. It should be mentioned that there are no known influences to molar pregnancy, and it is nobody’s mistake.
There are two types of molar pregnancy:
a) Full molar pregnancy: This happens when the genetic code in the egg is missing or deactivated. There are no mommy chromosomes, and they are compensated with 2 daddy chromosomes. Since there is no mother genetic material, an embryo cannot be formed. Instead, what is formed are deformed placenta cells.
b) Partial molar pregnancy: In this case, the egg is fertilized with 2 spermatozoids, and instead the usual 46 chromosomes, the egg has 69. Very rarely, twins can be conceived, and one of the twins is normal, but he is strangled from the abnormal level of placenta.
How to Diagnose Molar pregnancy?
Once mothers visit their physician, some of the tests include examining the amount of hCG hormone. If the concentration is too low for the appropriate pregnancy period, it could be either tubal pregnancy or miscarriage. The amount of hCG hormone doubles every two days, so second test is always taken. Ultrasound scan may also be performed in order to see where the embryo is positioned. Vaginal exam may also be needed. Sometimes, for just in case, laparoscopy is required to confirm that the oviducts are empty.
Symptoms of Molar Pregnancy
Molar pregnancy starts with the same symptoms as normal pregnancy. However, there are some symptoms that will help mothers notice something is wrong in her pregnancy.
- Dark brown bleeding
- Heavy sickness and throwing out
- Intensive growth of the uterus, although sometimes the opposite happens; the uterus becomes smaller than normal
- Increased hCG
- High blood pressure or early pre-eclampsia
- Problems with the thyroid and symptoms like rapid heartbeat, increased sweating and exhaustion
Treatments of Molar Pregnancy
Molar pregnancy is a traumatic experience for both of the parents. Often, it can jeopardize women’s health. To protect the mother, molar tissue has to be fully removed from the body through surgical intervention such as curettage. In rare cases, there are no consequences, but in 20% of the full molar pregnancy and 2 to 5% of partial, the tissue continues to exist and turns into cancer.
Regular testing of the hCG hormone is required after curettage for monitoring purpose. Once the treatments are done, the recommendation is to wait one year until the next pregnancy.