What Is Prostatitis? Types, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Prostatitis occurs when there is a swelling or inflammation of the prostate gland. Normally, the prostate gland has a shape of a small walnut and it is found just beneath the bladder in men. The function of the prostate gland is to produce semen; a fluid in which the male spermatozoa is found.

This fluid helps nourish the sperm and give it enough energy to swim up the female reproductive vagina to meet the female egg during sexual intercourse. Apart from this, the fluid produced by the prostate gland provides a transport system by which the sperm can swim in comfortably.


Most of the time, prostatitis is caused by bacteria strains and there are four different types of prostatitis and they include:

  1. Acute bacterial prostatitis: This occurs when bacteria get into the prostate gland from the urinary system. When the bacteria that causes urinary tract, infections get to penetrate and enter into the prostate gland, one would develop acute bacterial prostatitis.

Most of the urinary tract organs such as the kidney, the bladder and the urethra are in close proximity with the prostate gland and there is a huge tendency that whatever bacteria that causes urinary tract infections can also get into the prostate glands too.

Acute bacterial prostatitis is a very severe but common form of prostatitis and it has the following symptoms namely;

  • Severely high fever
  • Elevated temperature levels
  • Severe pains in the muscle.
  • Pains in the joints
  • Severe pains found around the base area of the penis or just beneath and behind the scrotum
  • Trouble while urinating indicated by severe pains felt during urination
  • Weak urine flow

Once as a man, you begin to notice these symptoms, please do seek the counsel of a medical practitioner.

  1. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: This is usually more commonly seen in older men. This type of prostatitis can go on for a long period of time ranging from weeks to months and it usually comes on as a mild infection.

Some men may begin to experience this type of prostatitis once they have urinary tract infections or when they already have the presence of an underlying disease such as acute bacterial prostatitis. Most of the symptoms of chronic bacterial prostatitis usually are not constant I.e. they come and go. Hence, most times it is not easily diagnosed early until it becomes severe.

It is also described as the recurrent bacterial prostatitis and it is usually difficult to treat because when the person goes for checkup, the symptoms may not appear at that point hence a misdiagnosis may occur.

There are symptoms to be expected when one begins to suspect chronic bacterial prostatitis and they include;

  • An increased urgency to urinate mostly in the middle of the night
  • Severe pains during urination
  • Intense pain upon orgasm and ejaculation during sexual intercourse
  • Pain in the lower back
  • Heaviness just behind or beneath the scrotum
  • Presence of an urinary tract infection
  • Presence of blood or blood spots in semen
  • Blockage in urinary tract leading to little or no production of urine causing the inability to urinate.
  • Severe pains in the rectum.


  1. Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: It is otherwise known as chronic prostatitis. This is the most commonly seen among the types of prostatitis we have. However, doctors don’t have much to go on in diagnosing this type. This is because it shares almost the same types of symptoms exhibits by acute bacterial prostatitis.

It may sometimes be inflammatory and at other times, it is non-inflammatory. This variation depends on the presence of cells that fight against infections in the urine, semen or even the prostatic fluid. Patients suffering from this disease will also not present with difficulties or specific symptoms

It usually causes severe pains and intense swelling or inflammation in the pelvic organs, in the prostate gland and as well as the lower urinary tract. The cause of this exact type of prostatitis is not known yet but some researchers concluded that it could be due from the result of the presence an alternative infection or as a result of external trauma causing an injury (might be very minute) which then lead to the inflammation of the prostate gland.

  1. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: This type of prostatitis is usually discovered during a work-up for the test of infertility in males. It can also be discovered when one does a test for prostate cancer.

Most individuals who have this type of prostatitis often don’t know that they have it simply because they don’t exhibit or show any sign and symptom that could point to this disease. The only indicator that will point to the presence of asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis is the presence of infection-fighting cells in the either the patient’s urine or semen.

There are several risk factors to consider while diagnosing for prostatitis and they include:

  1. Age: Men in General irrespective of the age have the tendency to develop prostatitis but it is mostly seen in young men and also middle-aged men. Men within the age bracket of 40-45 years have a higher tendency of developing prostatitis more than other men in other age brackets.
  2. A patients with a prior history too also has a higher chance of developing prostatitis. This could be due to a recurrent bacterial infection that entered the prostate gland through the blood.
  3. A patient who also had a urinary tract infection too has a risk of getting prostatitis.
  4. The recent use of an improperly sterilized catheter can cause the introduction of strains of bacteria into the urinary tract and invariably the prostate gland.
  5. People had severe trauma or injury to the pelvis also have a higher risk of getting prostatitis. Injuries too can be an entry point of bacteria into the blood and invariably the urinary tract and then the prostate gland.
  6. When a patient has a weakened or compromised immune system, then there won’t be enough production of antibodies to fight off infections in the body. This however will then make the patient very vulnerable to any type of infection include bacterial infection.
  7. Males who engage in anal sex too are likewise likely to develop prostatitis.

There are some complications which could develop in one’s body due to prostatitis and they include;

  • The presence of bacteria in the blood
  • Inflammation of the epididymis
  • A large amount of pus found within the prostatic cavity
  • Infertility can develop, and this is due to chronic prostatitis
  • Obstruction of the bladder outlet leading to urine retention and hereby causing a distended bladder.

For as many men who are asking if prostatitis can be cured, yes it can. Once you are experiencing the symptoms listed above, please kindly visit your doctor for proper medical checkup. And once your medical practitioner confirms the diagnosis, then he or she should place the patient on high doses of antibiotics.

However, treatment may also depend on the type of prostatitis that is affecting the patient. For a patient suffering acute bacterial prostatitis, this infection can easily be treated. But for patients suffering from chronic prostatitis or chronic bacterial prostatitis, there may be serious complications which can lead to life-long symptoms and severe discomfort and pain most especially from the prostatitis wasn’t properly treated.

Note: Prostatitis doesn’t lead to prostate cancer neither does it increase the risk of one getting prostate cancer in anyway.


Fabry’s Disease: Overview of Fabry Disease

Fabrys Disease

Fabry’s disease is a very rare genetic disorder that is characterized with the lack of an enzyme known as alpha galactosidase A. The effects of this disease cuts across every organ in the body. It rapidly progresses, and It can be very life threatening if allowed to get to the late stage.

People who have been diagnosed to have this disease have been seen to have a damaged gene which will lead to the loss of that very important enzyme known as Alpha galactosidase A. This disease affects all the parts of the body including their respective organs. This disease is classified as a disorder in lysosomal storage.

Lysosomes are an important part of the cell organelles that is responsible for the metabolism of certain fatty acids that is needed by the cells of the body for body development. Once there is a disorder in the way lysosome is being stored, enzymes won’t be properly broken down and also aid in metabolizing some certain fatty acids that is needed for the growth and development of the body.

Fabry's DiseaseOnce this begins to occur over a period of time, then these fatty acids that weren’t digested and metabolized will then gather themselves together and accumulate. This overloading of fatty acids will then later cause severe impairment to the cells ability to function normally.

Fabry’s disease is caused as a result of the mutation of a gene and it mostly affects the males much more than the females. For females, they can only get this disease if it is inherited. This disease is considered a progressive one and it gets to the peak when the patient approaches the age range of about 30-45years. At this age, the disease may have progressed towards the kidney, the heart or the brain or even to the three of them at once.

The main known cause of Fabry’s disease is genetic disorder that is caused by either gene mutation or a partial change in a person’s DNA. The defective chromosome however in this case is the X-chromosome. Normally, in a human being, there are specifically two types of chromosomes i.e. the X-chromosome and the Y-chromosome. In a female, there is a combination of XX chromosome while for males, they have the XY chromosome.

When a male inherits the defective X chromosome (the chromosome with the defective gene), he would be at risk of developing Fabry’s disease. You may be wondering why the females don’t usually get this disease since they also have the X-chromosome. If a female should get this defective chromosome as well, they have another X-chromosome which is normal and can likewise cover up for the aberrations found on the defective X-chromosome. They will therefore at this stage become a carrier of the disease.

When there is a gene mutation that results in the deficiency of the enzyme alpha galactosidase A, this mutation or defect will prevent the adequate production of this enzyme and this will cause a massive buildup of fat called GL-3 (globotriaosylceramide) in the body which is the major symptom of Fabry’s disease.

This disease is gotten as a result of genetic inheritance. Females only tend to be carriers but then males are mostly affected hence it is called a X-linked chromosomal or genetic disease.

When a mother carries this defective gene, her children (both the males and females) have the tendencies of getting this disease equally. If it is the father that is carrying this defective gene, the female child will be the one to get it because the father will only contribute the X-chromosome that he carries to his female daughter and then contribute the Y-chromosome to the son. The son that gets the Y-chromosome won’t be affected but then the female that gets the defective X chromosome will become a carrier of this disease.

There are two different stages of the Fabry’s disease and they are;

  1. The classic or type 1 Fabry’s disease
  2. The later onset Fabry’s disease or typically known as the type 2 Fabry’s disease.

The classic Fabry’s disease usually starts at a very tender age and research has shown that it affects 1 in every 40 males while the type 2 Fabry’s disease occur much more frequently in males than the type 1.

There are symptoms to be expected at each stage of this disease. For the type 1 Fabry’s disease, the following symptoms are to be expected at the early stages:

  1. Tingling pain and/or severe burning sensation in both the hands and the feet: When a male child is affected by this defective chromosomal aberration, this symptom is to be expected very early in the child’s life most especially if the child is between the ages of 2-8 years old.

Female carriers too would most likely experience this symptom later in life; almost when they are close to adolescence and puberty. Fabry’s crisis which is characterized by episodes and stages of intense pain lasting from a range of minutes to several days is usually experienced by the patient.

  1. Inability to produce sweat due to the compression of the sweat glands by this fat accumulation is seen. However, this is majorly seen to be experienced by males much more than the females.
  2. Skin rashes all over a specific part of the body: Angiokeratoma is a common feature of this disease. Angiokeratoma is a reddish skin rash that is usually found in between the belly button or navel and the two knees only.
  3. Abnormal cornea: Due to this aberration, the patient is to experience a change in the size or shape or a change in appearance of this blood vessels within the eye most especially around the cornea. Although, this may not cause vision impairment or loss of vision, it certainly is not a pleasant condition to have to deal with most especially if the blood vessels are enlarged.
  4. General body tiredness, body weakness and a high level of heat intolerance is also to be noticed and experienced by the patient. Some males, however in addition to general body weakness tends to experience some sort of inflammation and swelling in both their legs and feet.

When there is a progression of the type 1 Fabry’s disease, the condition of the patient becomes quite serious and complicated. When people with the type 1 Fabry’s disease reach their middle age (between 30-40 years), there is every tendency that they would develop either heart problems, kidney problems and/or stroke.

People with the late onset of Fabry’s disease or the type 2 Fabry’s disease tend to develop this disease later in life mostly when they begin to approach the ages of 40-60 years of age. Type 2 Fabry’s disease can be very severe and complications may arise as regards the symptoms they are experiencing or may soon experience. The symptoms they might experience include:

  1. A noticeable progressive decline in one’s kidney function which may invariably lead to kidney failure.
  2. A massive enlargement of the heart due to buildup of fat around the heart muscles, severe angina (cheat pains around the heart), arrhythmia or irregular heart beat and rhythm, every thickening of the heart muscles which may end up affecting the vessels surrounding the heart which will eventually accumulate and result in heart failure.
  3. Stroke which may be seen to occur in both the men and the women (though usually common in women) of ages 40years and above.
  4. Severe stomach problems.
  5. The patient might also experience partially total hearing loss.
  6. Ringing in one or both ears.
  7. Lung diseases
  8. Severe Fever and intolerance to heat
  9. Severe intolerance to strenuous activities and exercises.

Diagnosis of this particular disease may be very difficult due to the similarities of the symptoms of this disease with other diseases. Most times, most people don’t even get diagnosed till they have their first Fabry’s crisis. A child is often diagnosed from the kind of symptoms he/she presents.

While for an adult male, he would need to do full blood tests that will determine the level and amount of the damaged enzyme while for a female adult, she would need to do genetic screening because blood tests might be enough to diagnose the disease.

If in a family, there is a history of this disease, it is possible to run tests on the baby. This test is known as a prenatal test and this will help determine if the child has the disease or not. It is very important to detect this disease in its early stages as this is a disease that tends to progress rapidly and if it is detected on time, early treatment goes a long way to reduce the symptoms of this disease even to the barest minimum.

Good news is that this disease can be managed if caught early. Treatment can also help to relieve the pains that comes along with this disease as well as prevent further damage poised by this disease.

Once a person is diagnosed of Fabry’s disease, it is very important to note that such a patient is advised NOT TO SMOKE. This is because smoking will increase the fat build up and cause further complications as well as lung problems. Not to mention the contamination of blood poised by the intake of Carbon monoxide (CO) gotten from the intake of cigarettes.


What is Water Allergy? Symptoms and Causes

Water Allergy

Since the creation of the world, one thing has always existed and remains relevant till present; water. Whichever theory of creation you choose to believe, the presence of water from the beginning of time has always been an essential part of all creation stories around the world and even the controversial evolution theory. The planet we live in is a proof that water covers more than half the world’s space.

The earth’s water space is so large that it is yet to be thoroughly explored. For aquatic animals, the absence of water from the world would mean the end of their existence. Oh, it would mean the end of life as we know it. Water is an essential part of the human existence; not a day goes by without every person in the world having a water-related activity. From cooking, having our baths, doing laundry, growing food, to the production of various items the value of water cannot be compromised. Even the human body requires water for hydration to replace the liquid we lose in sweat, urine, and tears. For people like me, drinking water is a habit I cannot get enough of.

Doctors say that drinking enough water daily is essential for healthy living as it keeps the body system running and cleanses it from impurities. When it comes to beauty, water is there to play a lead role. For bright and beautiful skin, we are advised to drink a lot of water alongside other skin treatments. Even the growth of healthy hair requires enough consumption of water.

Water Allergy

However, as important as water is to all things living, some humans have shown to be allergic to water regardless of its temperature or level of purity. Water allergy is a rare medical condition, but it does exist. Some other unusual medical conditions include the laughing death disease, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, and the foreign accent syndrome.

What Is Water Allergy?

Aquagenic urticaria, also called water allergy, is an uncommonly diagnosed type of physical urticaria. However, water allergy is different from other forms of urticaria because it is not a histamine releasing kind of allergic reaction. People with Aquagenic urticaria react to contact with water regardless of how hot, warm, or cold it is. This allergic reaction extends to even reach with patients own tears, sweat and urine.

You might be thinking this has to do with the level of purity of the water victims come in contact with, but it would interest you to know that this has nothing to do with contaminated water. No matter how treated or germ-free the water is, sufferers of water allergy will have an allergic reaction. So how do they have a bath, go out in the rainy seasons, drink water, or even brush their teeth? I asked myself these same questions when I first learnt of this rare medical condition. But one thing is sure, kids with this condition can’t have fun in the snow like their friends, and that will hurt them more than the knowledge that they have a water allergy.

Symptoms of water allergy

Water allergy is a form of the physical hive. And like other physical hives, its symptoms include the appearance of a rash on the victim’s skin, intense itching, and redness of the skin, inflammation, burning sensation, difficulty in breathing, difficulty in swallowing, rash around the mouth, welts, and wheezing. However, when the victim’s body begins to dry off the water, the reactions start to fade out within half an hour to one hour gradually. The water allergy condition is so rare that less than a hundred cases of it have been recorded in medical literature so far.

Some Reported Cases of Water Allergy

Alexandra Allen is a teen from Mapleton, Utah. According to Miss Allen, as a little girl, she had dreams of becoming a marine biologist and making a sailboat her home. However, when she became 12years old, she had her first terrible water reaction. She recalled going on a vacation with her family and decided to spend some time swimming in a hotel pool, little did she know that she would spend the rest of that night scratching her body.

Allen woke her when her body began to itch, and she noticed she was already covered in hives. Allen reportedly sat in her bathroom trying to fight the urge to scratch her body so as not to worsen her condition before her mother came with a Benadryl. Before Alexandra Allen was diagnosed of water allergy, she had thought that she was suffering from chlorine reaction, or she was allergic to other harsh chemicals that were used in the treatment of swimming pool water, so she made sure to avoid swimming in pools.

However, she had the same allergic reaction when she went swimming in a lake popularly known to have clean water. At the age of 15, Alexandra Allen was surfing the web when she stumbled on a site that discussed water allergy, and she realised that all the symptoms listed there described her condition perfectly. To confirm her assumption, Allen took her discovery to her dermatologist. Allen recalled how her dermatologist called in other medical doctors and she had to do a test to confirm the assumed diagnosis of her condition. According to the young lady, she had to soak herself in a bathtub containing water, and the reaction began to manifest. The doctors were awed by the discovery.

Another reported case of water allergy is that of little miss Ivy Angerman. This toddler from Minnesota has Aquagenic urticaria that causes her to react to both her tears and sweat. The mother of 18months old Ivy reported that her daughter who used to be a big fan of shower hour now cries in pain whenever she has a bath. Miss Ivy always has to run around while whining and complaining of experiencing a burning sensation every time she comes in contact with water. Although Ivy’s kind of water reaction is believed to be peculiar to teenage girls, the case of this toddler has redefined the assumption.

What Causes Aquagenic Urticaria?

Like some rare medical conditions, the cause of water allergy is yet to be discovered, but researches are still ongoing to determine with reason. When the human body is allergic to any substance, it releases histamine to combat the allergy, and this causes a manifestation of allergic reactions.

Is There A Cure?

There is presently no cure for water reaction, but there are options of treatment for the allergic reactions. Also, sufferers are advised to stay away from water, but that is humanly impossible. However, victims usually have to take only small baths and try to reduce the intake of foods with high water content. Asides direct contact with water, some victims have been reported to experience allergic reactions during cold weather conditions.

Cataracts: Types, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Cataracts happens when the lens is clouded hence there is no clear vision anymore. Cataracts develops in the lens. The lens is found behind the iris which is the coloured area of your eyes. The function of the lens is to help focus light that comes in through your eyes on the retina such that there is a production of very clear and sharp images on the retina.

The retina is just like a film in a camera. It is made of sensitive membranes that capture images in the eyes and then sends them to the brain through the optic nerve. Normally, the lens is very sensitive and flexible but as age sets in, the lens becomes less flexible, thicker and less transparent and in some cases may become opaque.

This will then cause the tissues found in the lens to begin to stick together forming clumps which will eventually cloud the areas found within the lens. This could be caused by age and some certain medications that can affect the eyes.

Just as the cataract will then continue to form, the lens found in the eyes becomes affected with thicker clumps therefore forming a larger cloud which ends up affecting a larger area in the lens. This cloud will then scatter and continually block the rays of light coming into the lens thereby preventing several sharply well-defined and well-formed images from reaching the retina. Hence, as a result of this, the person’s vision will then become blurry.

In most cases, cataracts usually develop in both eyes but not always at the same time but eventually, it gets to affect the both eyes. And sometimes, the cataract doesn’t affect both eyes equally. It usually affects one eye more than the other.


The cataracts found in one eye is larger and greater in one eye than in the other causing a different degree of light rays to pass through. This will therefore lead to a very large difference in the type of vision seen in both eyes.

There are different types of cataracts and they include:

  1. Nuclear cataracts:

It is also known as nuclear sclerosis of the eyes. This type of cataract usually affects the centre of the lens. Most times a nuclear cataract usually shows up as nearsightedness that is more than usual. Sometimes, it can even exhibit as a massive temporary improvement in one’s reading and likewise seeing vision.
However, as time passes, the lens gradually develops a yellowish colour which will later become dense leading to the further clouding of one’s vision. As the cataract advances gradually, the lens may begin to turn brown and as such will begin to advance.

When this occurs, the patient will experience intense difficulty in distinguishing between different shades of colours. When it gets to this advanced stage, this type of cataract is then known as the brunescent cataract

  1. Cortical cataracts:

This kind of cataract affects the edges and sides of the lens. This occurs when the cortex of the lens becomes opaque. A cortical cataract usually proceeds with a whitish streak on the outer layer of the lens. As this cataracts advances, this streak will proceed and stretch towards the centre and hence interfere with the rays of light passing through the centre of the lens causing the lens to become opaque.

  1. Posterior subcapsular cataracts:

This type of cataract affects the back of the lens. Most times, the posterior subcapsular cataract starts as a small opaque area usually at the posterior end of the lens mostly in the path of light rays coming into the eye.

A posterior subcapsular cataract often interferes with the path of a person’s reading vision. It also causes a reduction of one’s vision in bright light and causes a halo-like structure around lights seen mostly in the night. This type of cataract usually tends to progress more rapidly than others.

  1. Congenital cataracts:

This kind of cataracts affects young children and new born. Some new born develop it even from birth while the others develop it from their childhood. While some of these cataracts are caused by trauma, some are due to genetic factors while the remaining types of these cataracts are caused by infection.

This type of cataract too can also be due to some diseased conditions such as myotonic dystrophy, rubella otherwise known as neurofibromatosis type II, and also galactosemia etc.

This congenital defect doesn’t usually affect the child’s vision initially but if after detected, it isn’t treated, then the child will start experiencing blurry vision.

There are different causes of cataracts and they include:

  1. Age:

Age is a major factor that causes cataract. When an aged person who also has an underlying diseased condition such as diabetes mellitus, it can cause severe weakening of the tissues of the lens and hereby accelerating the degeneration of the lens.

  1. Environmental factors:

Environmental factors such as toxins, excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays, excessive exposure to radiation will cause alteration in the genes of the body and also the genes found in the eye too aren’t left out. It will cause mutations in the genes of the eyes and severe alterations in the chemical processes that occur in the eyes. This will therefore cause so many complications in the eyes including cataracts.

  1. Genetics:

Cataracts can be caused as a secondary condition from some underlying diseases caused by the inheritance of some gene related disorders.

  1. Medications:

The side effects of the long-term use of some medications like steriodal based drugs can cause the formation of cataracts.

  1. Trauma:

Severe trauma to the eyes can cause damage to the lens and can also cause cataracts.

The following are risk factors for cataracts and they include:

  • Age
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Increased blood pressure
  • An inflammation of a previous trauma to the eyes
  • Increased or prolonged use of some medications
  • Alcohol

Cataracts can’t be treated except by surgery. But it can be managed. When they begin to appear initially, they can be managed using glasses with strong bifocations as that will help improve the condition.

There are certain measures one can take to prevent cataracts and they include:

  1. Always undergo constant eye checkup: Constant eye checkup can help to detect and confirm eye defects even in their earliest stages.
  2. Manage every underlying ailment appropriately and treat those that can be treated well
  3. Stop smoking and also reduce alcoholic intake.
  4. Always ensure to use sunglasses when necessary.
  5. Also avoid the exposure to UV rays excessively. If it not necessary, avoid being exposed to it to avoid gene mutations.

Laughing Death Disease – Cause, Symptoms, and Remedy

Laughing Death Disease

Laughter, they say is the best medicine. Over the years, people have been advised to laugh more often as laughter makes you look and feel younger. It is a sign of happiness when you see people smile and many times, this laughter is contagious. It is no breaking news that laughter has mental health benefits and it more we laugh the longer we live. But what happens when laughter becomes the end of human life? In this article, you will be learning about a rare medical condition known as Kuru.

The world has experienced the outbreak of quite some rare diseases. Some of the conditions that are rarely heard of are Alice in Wonderland syndrome, foreign accent syndrome, and the laughing death diseases. If you missed our articles on Alice in Wonderland syndrome and the foreign accent syndrome, you should check it out.

The history of Kuru

Laughing Death Disease

Some popular neurodegenerative prion protein diseases affect human beings. They include Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann–Straüssler–Scheinker (GSS) disease, and the variant CJD (vCJD). The laughing death disease is also a neurodegenerative prion protein disease, but it is unpopular because of its rarity. This disease is, however, as scary as its title “laughing death” also known as Kuru.

The laughing death disease was common among the Fore people of Papua New Guinea who practiced ritual cannibalism of their dead loved ones. These people believed that the ritual eating of the corpse would set the spirit of their deceased family members free. The mental and intellectual wealth of a dead person was also believed to be transferred to those who partook of the ritual cannibalism. Other forms of death from laughter can be as a result of asphyxiation or cardiac arrest. One of the people who died from laughing in ancient Greece was Chrysippus, but his death was not a result of the Kuru disease. In the language of the fore tribe, the word “Kuru” has two different meanings “deterioration” and “trembling.” Because the patients were seen to wear a smile before death, the disease was nicknamed “laughing death”.

However, members of the fore tribe had a notion that an evil eye that was created by an Alien shaman was responsible for the laughing death disease. Women and children mostly suffered from the kuru disease because they ate the brains of the dead during the ritual.

Furthermore, Research on kuru formed the idea of transmissible prion disease in humans- spongiform encephalopathies.

What Are the Symptoms?

Kuru disease has three stages and is hardly diagnosed at the first stage. The first stage comes in the form of a headache and joint pain, slurring of speech and other symptoms that mimic a fever. However, symptoms worsen from the second stage.
The symptoms of the laughing death disease include coughing, a high body temperature, headache and fatigue, loss of coordination, muscle twitching, tremors, walking difficulties, running nose, trouble eating, Joint pain in victim’s leg, dementia, changes in mood and behavior of the victim.

Causes of the Kuru disease

As earlier stated, the laughing death disease is caused by ritual cannibalism among the fore locals of Papua New Guinea. The brains of the deceased that was consumed by mainly children and women contained the infectious agent prion. The men only ate the muscles of the corpse and had no reported case of kuru among them.
Furthermore, the laughing death disease does not begin to manifest on the body of a victim immediately the corpse is consumed. Kuru has an incubation period ranging from two to twenty years. More than a thousand cases of death from the laughing death disease have been recorded since it’s the first case.

Can the laughing death disease be inherited?

Someone in the early 1800s in Papua must have to be the first to have a contaminated brain and passed the kuru disease the those who engaged in ritual cannibalism of his or her corpse. Like other prion diseases, the laughing death disease can be transferred from parent to their offspring.

Who discovered the Kuru virus?

A young man called Michael Alpers first learned about the Kuru disease in the Adelaide Advertiser in the year 1957. After he graduated from medical school in 1961, he decided to take on an adventure to Papua New Guinea where he would discover the cause of the strange laughing death sickness that had plagued the Fore locals. Mr. Michael explained that he spent the first few months touring the area and making inquiries from the locals. Mr. Michael was warmly welcomed, and in time the locals built him a house and provided him with a generator. Finding a cure for the laughing death disease was Michael Alpers’ primary concern, but he soon realized that the locals faced some other health challenges and they had little or no medical assistance. Alpers soon set up a small clinic with the help of the locals. As at the time of his arrival in Guinea, most of the fore people suffered from a tropical ulcer. He began to treat them using penicillin, and they responded to treatment which made the locals more willing to assist the doctor the best was they could. Because the laughing death disease was on the verge of wiping the fore people from the face of the earth, they became critical about finding a lasting solution to their problem. According to Mr. Alpers, the fore people assisted him both with domestic chores and medical work so that he could work better at finding the cause of the Kuru disease.

Furthermore, in early 1962, Mr. Alpers was opportune to meet Carleton Gajdusek, who was an American scientist that had been researching the kuru disease. Mr. Carleton Gajdusek was more particular about finding out whether the laughing death sickness was hereditary. Mr. Alpers and the American scientist began to work together, and they were able to trace the cause of the virus to the consumption of the brains of deceased people during ritual cannibalism. In a short while, the works Mr. Carleton and Alpers did on the kuru virus gained some recognition, but only Carleton was given a Nobel price.
However, Mr. Carleton was soon jailed for child molestation.

Is there a cure for Kuru?

Sadly, the laughing death disease has no cure. However, the condition is almost extinct as the practice of ritual cannibalism has been abolished.

Learning About Automatic Thoughts and Cognitive Distortions

Cognitive Distortions

Automatic thoughts are just what the name implies. They are the thoughts that occur constantly as our minds seek to narrate what is going on around us. The limbic system is the area of the brain that controls our immediate response to situations, and this is where our automatic thoughts are born. It assesses what is going on quickly and makes a snap judgment based on the information at hand. This is very helpful in situations where a quick response is desired, like an emergency or crisis.

In other situations, though, it would be better for us to slow down and wait for more information and not react to situations based on our limbic system’s messages alone. If left unchecked, automatic thoughts may lead to emotional wellness concerns like anxiety, depression, and stress and sleep difficulty.

Cognitive Distortions

Everything we think is an automatic thought. A problem arises when our automatic thoughts manifest as cognitive distortions. Cognitive distortions are automatic thoughts that are based on deeply ingrained core beliefs, and they are irrational reactions we habitually have to situations. We often don’t even know that we see the world in terms of these cognitive distortions. Just as the name implies, they are based on faulty reasoning. There are several types of common cognitive distortions.

Over generalization

As we go through life, we learn from our experiences. It is a natural process of trial and error. Problems arise when we lump all similar experiences together and decide that all experiences of a certain nature will always turn out the same way. See the uses of the words “all” and “always” in that last sentence? That’s a hint at over generalization. If Jane got dumped by her first boyfriend and decided from then on that she is destined to always get dumped, she’d be making an over generalization. This thinking doesn’t take into account the different factors that affect every situation, though. Instead of assessing why she got dumped by her first boyfriend and learning from the actual experience as it happened, she simply decided to learn a general lesson about the nature of relationships.

This can obviously lead to trouble. As she goes through relationships later in life operating under this assumption, she’ll be much more likely to act in ways that will fulfill her fears. She won’t be able to open up and communicate in her relationships because she won’t be comfortable. This will lead to more experiences of getting dumped, and if she continues to overgeneralize, this will just reinforce the assumption. It will also prevent her from learning about the subtle intricacies of her experiences.


Labeling is similar to over generalization. It can take the form of making sweeping over generalizations about a group of people based on the actions of only a few of them. It can also manifest as self-labeling. Self-labeling can have extremely negative effects. If a person gets a bad grade on a math test and automatically says, “I’m a bad math student,” they won’t take the steps necessary to improve their math skills. “Bad math student” is a label that they’ve applied to themselves, and it most likely is not true.

With further study, this person would be able to figure out what they did wrong and how to do it right. Instead, by labeling themselves as a “bad math student,” they don’t have to take responsibility for doing the work to learn about math. These labels are self-defeating, and they often lead us to create the very situation that is causing us problems.

Mind Reading

Often we assume that we know what people are thinking about us, even if their actions are neutral or indicate the contrary. This is referred to as mind reading. Everybody knows that we can’t really read minds. If we’re having a conversation with somebody and they correct us about something, we are likely to automatically think, “Oh, no, they think I’m an idiot!” This is probably not true; we are much more critical of ourselves than others are of us. In fact, they probably didn’t even think anything at all about our mistake.

Yet we will let what we assume they think about us affect our behavior for the rest of our conversation with that person, and this might make for some negative outcomes if we hadn’t assumed that they thought the worst of us.

Fortune Telling

When we assume that we know what will happen in the future, we’re fortune telling. Dave is looking for a job. Every time he sits down to send out resumes, he thinks, “There’s no way I’m even going to get considered for these jobs.” He sends out the resumes anyway, but never follows up with a phone call or tries to set up any interviews. Because he’s automatically assumed that he won’t get the jobs, he doesn’t try very hard to stand out from the other applicants. He’s convinced they’re better than him. His fortune telling in this situation prevents him from putting forth any effort.

Not surprisingly, he doesn’t get the jobs, but it’s because his negative fortune telling is controlling his behavior. Often we try to predict the future in situations without any evidence to support our claim, and sometimes we even try to predict an outcome when there’s evidence to the contrary. Negative fortune telling without proper objective evidence sets us up for failure because we’ll be much less likely to give the situation the chance it deserves.

Emotional Reasoning

As we’ve seen, sometimes our automatic thoughts are based on irrational assumptions. If we stop and think about them rationally, breaking them down based on solid evidence, then we see them as irrational and replace them with new, more rational viewpoints. If we analyze them with emotional reasoning, though, we feed into them and come to faulty conclusions. Basically, emotional reasoning is basing our thoughts and beliefs on our feelings. If you’re getting ready to give a speech in a meeting and you’re nervous, you might think, “I must not be very well prepared. Otherwise I wouldn’t be so nervous.

I’m going to make a fool out of myself!” Even though you spent several hours the day before preparing materials and information for this presentation, you’re discounting this fact because you’re nervous about speaking in front of your boss and co-workers. Nervousness is a normal emotional reaction to the situation, but it doesn’t mean that you don’t know the material. This reasoning doesn’t work because the only evidence used is the way you feel in a certain situation, and it doesn’t take into account all the other factors operating at the time.


“Shoulding yourself” is criticizing yourself by concentrating on all the things you should be doing instead of whatever you’re doing at the time. If you’re watching a movie and all you can think is, “I should be studying/cleaning the kitchen/walking the dog,” you diminish any possible enjoyment you could be getting out of watching the movie.

You also make it much less likely that you’ll actually do all those things you “should” be doing. By simply saying, “I should be studying,” you make it into a chore completely devoid of any benefit, and you won’t want to do it. If instead you think, “If I study now, I will have more time tomorrow to hang out with my friends, and I’d rather hang out with them tomorrow than watch this movie right now,” then you’re weighing your options and making a decision to study that will yield a positive result. Sure, everyone has obligations in situations that they have to take care of, and these obligations aren’t always exactly what we’d like to be doing at the moment. By weighing the costs and benefits rather than simply imposing “shoulds” on every obligation, we can make the most of our time and get more enjoyment out of life. Some shoulds are even more harmful.

While “I should be studying,” will most likely just lead to procrastination, “I should be reading a classic novel by Dickens rather than this sci-fi fantasy fiction because I need to get smarter,” is worse because it’s based on the idea that we should spend even our free time doing what other people expect of us (or, in many cases, what we think they expect of us) rather than what we enjoy or think is right. A great example is people who go to college because they think that they “should.” If, after weighing all the options, someone decides that college isn’t the best option for them, they don’t have to go, even if they think that others will judge them for that choice. “Shoulding” ourselves can lead to making major life decisions that aren’t necessarily the actual best choices.


Personalization is when we take the blame for outcomes that are beyond our control. Blame is when we point the finger at somebody else for an outcome something that we caused. Personalization and blame are both based on the assumption that people should be perfect and never make mistakes, and when mistakes are made, someone must be at fault and made to pay. The problem here is that everybody makes mistakes, and mistakes are simply an opportunity for us to learn to be better and grow.

Punishment isn’t necessary for everyday errors; the idea is to see where we went wrong and try to do better in the future. It also means learning to distinguish between things we did wrong, factors we couldn’t control (such as other people’s reactions, opinions, and ideas), and things that were caused by other’s actions. Let’s say that Jane, who got dumped a few examples ago, got dumped because her boyfriend was moving away and didn’t want to try to maintain a long distance relationship. If she tells herself, “I don’t care what he says.

I got dumped because I’m ugly and stupid,” then she’s blaming herself for the outcome of a situation when it actually had nothing to do with who she is. It wasn’t her fault that he had to move, and it wasn’t her fault that he doesn’t believe in long distance relationships. Now she feels guilty for being herself (which, by the way, is not “ugly” or “stupid”—these are cognitive distortions in and of themselves).

All or None

All-or-nothing thinking is the same as saying, “Everything is black or white.” Perfectionists often engage in all-or-nothing thinking. People are either all good or all bad. An example would be if Bob overslept one morning and thought, “I don’t have time to run my usual full 5 miles today, so I’m not going to run at all. I’m such a lazy bum.” Even though Bob does have time to run 3 miles, he’s given up because he can’t see the benefit in modifying his standard. He also has decided that this automatically makes him a “bad” person.

A lot of times women will engage in all-or-nothing thinking about their bodies. They think, “Either I’m thin, toned, and a perfect size 6, or I’m a fat disgusting slob in a size 10.” This is a distortion; it doesn’t take into account that people are different. There are variations in height, frame, and muscular structure that can influence our size. This one example of all-or-nothing thinking can lead to more harmful all-or-nothing thinking such as, “I’m already fat, so I might as well just eat that whole pint of ice cream and box of cookies,” or the other extreme, “I’m so fat, I should only eat and apple at breakfast, lunch, and dinner.” All-or-nothing thinking looks at things as absolutes rather than a combination of factors. It also assumes that people, places, and things can be perfect, and if they’re not completely without flaws they must be horrible.

All of these cognitive distortions can have harmful effects on our feelings and behavior. By learning to recognize them, we can learn to talk ourselves out of such thinking and see things in a more positive light. They won’t go away just because we realize that they’re there, but we can learn how to spot them when they do arise and change our outlook by applying more rational thinking.

Author Bio:

William Bradley

Hello I am William Bradley loves reading and writing, currently works at best essay writing service as chief content editor. Feel free to contact me here https://twitter.com/william13189205

Alice in Wonderland Syndrome: Cause, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

Every day we hear of different diseases, and we have become familiar with some of them. However, there are numerous rare conditions that you have no idea of their existence. That’s why they are rare after all. This article is the first in a series that will expose you to the reality of some rare medical conditions.

Alice in Wonderland could easily pass for one of the oldest stories that children cannot get enough of.  The motion picture even makes the journey more interesting as you get to see Alice take on the adventure to wonderland.

Many children have wished to experience the same adventures that Alice had so they can grow tall enough to catch a flying bird or shrink tiny enough to ride on an ant. Like the wise would say, “we can be anything we imagine”.

While we may want to zero the Alice in Wonderland experience to the creativity of imagination, some people actually have a condition that mimics the change in size that Alice experienced. The rest of the world sees these people the way they are, but the victims themselves have a different view of themselves and life in general. This rare medical condition is called Alice in Wonderland syndrome.

If you are very familiar with the experiences of Alice, you would recall some of the events.  How time changes, straight lines become wavy, how she grew small enough to pass through a tiny door after sipping from a bottle that has “Drink me” written on it, and how she grew big enough to grab a key on a really tall table just after eating the cake that invited her with an “eat me” mark. People with Alice in Wonderland syndrome do not have to eat a cake or drink of a bottle to experience their symptoms.

Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

A British psychiatrist named John Todd, named this condition in 1955 after the fictional story of Alice in Wonderland, to explain the symptoms people he treated of epilepsy and migraine headaches claimed to have experience. The condition is also known as Todd syndrome (After Doctor Todd who named it AWS). The Todd syndrome has been discovered to affect mostly children and young adults who eventually outgrow it, but it is also possible for Adults to experience it. Symptoms can last from a few minutes to half an hour and also differ from sufferer to sufferer.

Symptoms of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

  1. Faces of real life people, or people in pictures may appear distorted
  2. A flat surface may appear sloppy
  3. Straight lines may seem to be wavy or even spiral
  4. You may feel like you just found yourself in Lilliput because everything will look to be bigger than you. This sensation is known as micropsia.
  5. The feeling of everything in your surrounding becoming way smaller than you is also a symptom. This feeling is the opposite of micropsia called macropsia.
  6. A migraine headache: Some medical practitioners believe that  AWS syndrome is  early signs of a migraine or an uncommon type of a migraine
  7. Sound distortion is also a common symptom
  8.  You may see things around you coming closer than they are, going farther, changing in sizes, colours, and positions. The feeling of objects getting larger or closer is known as pelopsia, and when you feel they are going farther or getting smaller, you are experiencing telopsia.
  9.  Flat objects may appear to be three dimensional, and the real three dimensional objects around you may look flat.
  10. You may feel like you are sinking into the ground or getting levitated from the field.
  11. Time distortion: People experiencing AWS may feel the time is running faster or slower than it is in reality.
  12. Puppet feeling: you may feel like your body is being controlled by someone or something that is not you. The inability to coordinate yourself or the feeling that your limbs are doing things without your control (Involuntary muscle movement) is possible as a result of the distorted sense of reality.
  13. Things that are static may appear to move

What could be responsible for the strange and rear feeling?  Could it be an allergic reaction, a neurological condition, or just mere hallucination?

Causes of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

The cause of the AWS is yet to ascertain, but it is believed that the Alice in Wonderland syndrome is neither a visual impairment, hallucination, nor a neurological condition and it starts at a very early stage of childhood.

The Todd syndrome, however, is assumed to be caused by an unusual flow of blood to the part of the brain or unusual electrical activity in the part of the brain that has to do with sensory information causing a change in a victim’s perception of self about his or her environment. Some victims of AWS were discovered to be suffering from a migraine, stress, brain tumour, an infection, epilepsy, stroke, or had an accident that caused them to hit their head, but some sufferer do not have such experiences, making it difficult to find an identifiable cause of their AWS.

Furthermore, some doctors believe that the AWS is just an aura that some people experience during or before a migraine, but it is not only restricted to these conditions. People with mental health conditions such as schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression can also experience the Todd syndrome. Drugs that have dizziness as a side effect can also cause a temporary feeling of distorted reality.


If you experience any of the symptoms of the Alice in Wonderland syndrome, make an appointment with a doctor or neurologist. The medical practitioner will review your symptoms with you and suggest you run some tests.

Some of the tests that may be carried out include Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Electroencephalogram (EEG), Epstein-Barr virus test.

MRI: This is a scan that shows images of your brain using radio waves and magnets.

EGG: The purpose of this test is to measure the rate of electrical activities in your brain

Epstein- Barr virus test: This involves a lab testing of your blood sample to check for the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus.


Just as the cause of AWS is unknown, so also no cure has been found for the syndrome. However, because AWS symptoms are not harmful, it is ok just to relax and let them wear out (which will happen in a few minutes).

Your doctor might prescribe medication that can help reduce the episode of migraines. For people who are depressed, antidepressants might also be suggested. You might decide to get a new diet plan designed to help reduce the occurrence of migraine headaches.

Conclusively, AWS is not a condition to be feared and if you feel uncomfortable with its recurrence, you are advised to stay away from conditions that trigger it.

Gastro Esophagus Reflux Disease – Causes and Treatments

Gastro Esophagus Reflux

At least once in our life we have all experienced an acute burning sensation in our esophagus, where it seems like we are literally on fire. Some are lucky to experience this feeling rarely. However, some people are not so lucky. Their experiences are far too common, going to a point where it’s almost part of their lives. This sensation of burning is known as Gastroesophagus Reflux Disease. Technically speaking it is a digestive disorder that affects the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The LES is a ring of muscle between our esophagus and the stomach. Many people suffer from heartburn or acid indigestion. Doctors believe that it can be caused by a condition called Hiatel Hernia. Simply speaking, in a moderate condition, GERD can be treated by home remedies, lifestyle changes, and diet regulation. If, however, the condition is beyond moderate, it needs medication or even surgery.

What is Gastro Esophagus Reflux Disease?

Gastro Esophagus Reflux

It is important to understand what Gastroesophagus Reflux is. Gastro esophagus refers to our stomach and Esophagus. Reflux means the returning of something. So, gastro esophagus reflux means returning of the contents of our stomach through the esophagus. In a normal situation, whatever we eat goes down the esophagus, getting smaller and smaller, and into the stomach. The LES opens up to let the food go down and closes immediately so that the stomach acids do not travel back up the esophagus, thus preventing any reflux. People suffering from GERD have a slight defect here. for them, the LES is either unable to close on time or is not able to function properly due to any reason, letting the stomach acids and fluids pass into the esophagus, thus causing major reflux and heartburn. The severity of GERD condition depends on the LES dysfunction. If you feel that you too are facing heartburn way more than you should, you can go through refluxmd. They have every kind of information you might need to get going.

Symptoms of Gastro Esophagus Reflux Disease

Heartburn is a popular, non-medical term. It is often referred to as Pyrosis in the medical terminologies. The most commonly known symptoms of GERD are Heartburn and Indigestion. Indigestion refers to the condition when you are unable to hold down anything. Vomiting repeatedly is common with Indigestion. At times breathlessness, difficulty in swallowing food also becomes a common occurrence. Indigestion and dysphagia leads to reduced food intake. This causes nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases it might also lead to weight loss. If you notice that you have lost weight without any efforts for the same, you can blame GERD for it. There could be other complications too, and the symptoms may overlap with one another.

Other symptoms include stomach cramps, dyspepsia, vomiting, and hoarseness of the voice, sour taste in the mouth, dry cough, sore throat, and difficulty in swallowing food.

Refluxmd can give you an entire list of mild to moderate GERD symptoms and signs that you can lookout for.

Treatments Of GERD

In mild cases of GERD, as experienced occasionally, home remedies work just fine. You can treat mild Heartburn or Acid reflux by having a cup of cold milk or eating fruits that help you balance out the acids in the esophagus. There are other such home remedies available on Refluxmd which can treat these.

If, you are experiencing a moderate heartburn, indigestion, or if it is happening more frequently, you might need a few medicines that can treat you. Doctors available on Refluxmd can also prescribe those for you. You can also opt for Over the Counter medications for immediate relief in a moderate case.

However, if you have a severe case of heartburn, or difficulty in breathing, difficulty in swallowing food, or the condition is a regular affair, you might need to visit a doctor and seek help. Severe cases of GERD can be due to a condition called Hiatel Hernia.

Dietary Changes that Can help ease GERD

It is often found that excessive consumption of foods that are high in fats, which includes fried or have high sugar contains lead to Acid reflux. It is, thus, advisable to reduce the consumption of these.

Beverages like tea, coffee or alcohol is not recommended in severe cases of heartburn. Also, intake of foods like chocolate, peppermint and fatty foods should be avoided. One should also take care as to consume foods that are healthy for an already irritated esophagus. Foods which have high content of citrus like lemon or orange will only aggravate the situation. You should also try to steer clear of pepper and other dishes which have high pepper requirement, tomato, tomato puree, tomato products, and fruit juices high in citrus will lead to an even weaker LES.

Decreasing the size of meal portions is highly advisable. This gives your stomach to better digest the food consumed. Small quantities of food mean that you will get hungry again in a couple of hours. This leads to better digestion as well as absorption of all the nutrients that you have consumed. Since, quantity is not much, all the food is digested properly, without any reflux, helping you feel satiated as well as keeps your LES working properly. Having a gap of at least 3 hours between your meal and bed time is also essential to keep acid reflux and heartburn under control. Another important aspect to remember is that having plenty of water helps us to digest food better and faster.  Better digestion leads to less stomach acid secretion, thus reducing the chances of a reflux.

One should include yogurt, fresh fruits like apple, banana, and a fistful of nuts in your everyday diet regime. These are rich in nutrients as well as make you feel full faster. These also initiate a better digestion.

Refluxmd has an entire list of diet changes that help in tackling GERD from stage one itself. One can find almost all data related to GERD including information about stages of GERD, diet and lifestyle changes required, doctors available. You can also see your symptoms and assess yourself from the information available on refluxmd.

What Are Uterine Fibroids? Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids or plainly called fibroids are medically known as uterine leiomyomas. They are tumors that are benign which are caused due to overgrowth from both the smooth muscles and the connective tissues found within the uterus. They are the most common tumors that usually affects women that are still within their reproductive and child-bearing years. Once a woman is above 50years of Age, the tendency to have uterine fibroids drop to almost about 70%.

Most fibroids grow in clusters. The exact cause of this growth is not known yet although most researchers say that fibroids are a result of the growth of an abnormal smooth muscle cell which due to the action of the female hormone(oestrogen) will grow and also multiply rapidly. Since they are benign tumors, they would hardly lead to cancer.

Uterine Fibroids

Though the exact cause of fibroids is not known yet but there are other factors that may increase one’s chances of getting uterine fibroids and those factors include:


Researchers have found out during their research and study that most fibroids contain several changes in the genes found in them which are different in an abnormal way from the types of genes present in a normal uterine muscle cell.

The role of female hormone:

There are two basic female hormones that are produced in the ovary and they include progesterone and oestrogen. These two hormones causes and increases the development of the internal lining of the uterus which usually occurs during a female’s menstrual cycle for the preparation of pregnancy.

This normal action however of both hormones tend to likewise promote the growth of uterine fibroids. This is said to be so because according to research, it has been seen that a growth of fibroid show markers for cells that are recipients of this hormones. In other words, fibroids usually contain more oestrogen and progesterone receptor cells, even much more than the normal uterine muscle receptor cells.

So, the more the production of this hormones, the higher the increase of these abnormal fibroid cells and the larger the fibroid grows. However, when a woman passes the child-bearing and reproductive stage, these fibroids tends to reduce in size and shrink due to the fact of the little or no production of menstrual hormones and hence no increase in these abnormal cells.

Obesity likewise might be a very great risk factor to getting fibroids. Fibroids have been seen to have a higher prevalent percentage in obese women than in other women.

Your diet:

Diets that includes a lot of vegetables and fruits will help in reducing the risk of getting fibroids. Normal diets that help in maintaining the level of vitamin D within the normal range are encouraged to be taken as it has been proven to lower the risks of getting fibroids.

Mostly fibroids are classified based on the sites and locations in which they are first discovered. There are basically four types of fibroids and they include:

  1. Intramural fibroid:

This type of fibroid grows within the layers of the muscular wall of the uterus.

  1. submucosal fibroid:

This is when the uterine fibroid is found within the lining of the uterus most especially within the sub-mucosal layer.

  1. Intra cavity fibroid:

This is the kind of fibroid found inside the uterine cavity.

  1. Sub-serosal fibroid:

This kind of fibroid is found outside the uterine cavity

  1. Preduncated uterine fibroid:

This kind of uterine fibroid is seen hanging just at the tip or stalk of the uterus.

There are several complications that can be seen to be caused by fibroids though fibroids in itself are usually not harmful or dangerous.

Complications such as chronic anaemia can be expected due to the frequent heavy blood loss experienced from fibroid

Other complications of fibroids include severe bladder problems and as well as severe bowel movement problems and obstruction. These usually occur when a very large fibroid causes the uterus to grow so large that it begins to press against pelvic organs like the bladder.

This however will then cause severe discomfort, constipation and/or an increased sense to frequently urinate.

In some very rare cases, fibroids have been seen to become cancerous.

Another complication that can arise is an interference with one’s fertility. Once a fibroid begins to interfere with the implantation of a fertilized egg, fibroids can begin to compromise with a woman’s ability to conceive. This can occur once the fertilized egg mistakenly implants itself in a fibroid instead of the normal implantation site.

Inability to conceive might also occur due to a situation whereby due to the abnormally large fibroid, there is a change in the shape of the uterus leading to difficulty in the implantation of the fertilized egg.

During pregnancy, fibroids can reduce or cut off the blood supply to the growing foetus by placing an intense pressure on the placenta thereby reducing placenta blood flow. This will lead to an increased tendency of miscarriage or even premature birth.

Fibroids that are located at the base of the uterus can hamper delivery if they obstruct and block the baby as the baby descends down the birth canal. This can therefore lead or increase the tendency of the occurrence of a caesarean section.

Though most times women who have fibroid have no symptoms, however there are some signs and symptoms that one should take note which can be an indication of the presence of uterine fibroid and they include:

  1. Heavy menstrual bleeding
  2. Menstrual periods that lasts longer than one week
  3. Frequent urge to urinate
  4. Severe constipation
  5. Severe back pains and even pains in the lower extremities
  6. Spotting in between periods

Treatments of uterine fibroid mostly depends on the location of the fibroid and also on how large the fibroid is.

There are some easy to look out for facts when it comes to uterine fibroids and they are:

  1. Most fibroids are not cancerous. Though about 1% of them go ahead to become cancerous but this is rarely seen.
  2. The leading cause of hysterectomy is fibroid. Hysterectomy is simply the surgical removal of the uterus or womb. Hysterectomy is a permanent cure for fibroids however most women usually don’t want to go down that road
  3. Fibroids mostly don’t prevent pregnancies from occurring but then again, they always bring complications in pregnancy.
  4. You really don’t have to go through hysterectomy if you don’t want to. There are treatments available these days that can help shrink fibroids and as well reduce the rate at which they grow. Treatment options include hormonal treatments and therapy, removal of the fibroid without necessarily removing the uterus also known as myomectomy, as well as ultrasound therapy.
  5. Fibroid is very common. Statistics show that about 70%-80% of women develop fibroid by the time they are approaching 50years of Age.
  6. The most common symptom of fibroid is heavy menstrual bleeding.
  7. Most times, fibroids don’t generally cause symptoms. Hence, most fibroids that don’t cause symptoms don’t require treatments. However, those that are causing symptoms require prompt treatment.

Once you are experiencing any of these symptoms, Endeavour to visit a doctor immediately for proper check-up and also to discuss appropriate forms of treatments.


Stuttering and Stammering – Causes, Treatments

Stuttering and Stammering

Stuttering is also known as Stammering, it is a common disorder especially in the young age children and it goes way in case of young age children but if you suffer from stuttering or stammering at the age of adulthood then it doesn’t go away without treatment. You’ve to consult with a doctor for speech therapy so they can give you advise and provide the best treatment for Stuttering.

What is Stuttering and Stammering?

Stuttering and Stammering

Stutter and Stammer both are the different words but having the same meaning. A Stammer is a speech disorder in which the stoppage and disruptions create intervention in the normal flow of speech and the timing of speech.These stoppages and disruptions may convert in the form of repetitions of words, sounds like he-he-hello and sometimes it been prolonged sounds so that the words may stretched too long like hhhhhhhhello.

In some cases stammering can be gentle, and not cause much problem in the flow of normal speech but in some cases it can be serious communication disorder.

Mostly the stammer may take into strike in children at the age of 2 to 5 but if you start suffering from stutter at the age of adulthood it being Serious issue and consult with a doctor. People who suffer from Stutter start escaping the difficult words in between the conversation.

Difference between Stuttering and Stammering

Stuttering and Stammering creates confusion between people, they think both words are different and used for different kind of speech disorder but the truth is in North America and Australia Stuttering is commonly used and in Britain Stammering is more commonly used.

The Difference between Stuttering and Stammering is like a funny english in which two different words represent the same meaning like football also known as soccer.

Symptoms of Stuttering

Common symptoms associated with Stuttering are following :-

  • Jaw may blink rapidly
  • Tension in the voice
  • Certain words may prolonged
  • Stoppage in speech in tense condition
  • Face become red
  • Hesitation before starting to speak.
  • Foot tapping
  • Repeating words, sound or syllable.

Due to Stuttering people felt embarrassing in public speak and getting nervous before starting the speech and facing other problem like difficulties in breathing,consumes lots of energy, physical and mental stress. Stage or public speaking is a challenge for person who stutter.

Types of Stutters


In the most of the cases people suffer from the stutter due to genetic. In genetic stutter problem there must me any family member is suffered from the stutter that’s why stuttering inherited in the child.


In this type of stutter, if children younger than 5 year old suffer from the stutter then there is no need to be any treatment. It will goes away automatically and mostly males are suffered from stutter at the childhood.

Multiple Word Repetition

In this type of stutter saying single word more than one time in continuous flow like “they are/they are/they are.”


In this type of stutter, the sound of the word being stretched     for a second of time like “Mmmmmmmummyyyy.”

Types of Stammering


In this type of stammer,if there is abnormalities between the connection of the brain and nerve system then it represent the neurogenic stammer.

Drug related

In this type of stammer, if the affected person stop taking the drug due to which the stammering is happened. It will completely goes away.

Stress related

In this type of stammer any kind of emotional trigger, loss in relationship and any type of bereavement can caused the stress related stammer.

Causes of Stuttering

Following are the causes of stuttering :-

  1. Family dynamic
  2. Neurophysiology
  3. Due to Inheritation
  4. Development of children
  5. Misconnection of brain and nerves

Some facts about Stuttering

  • Risk of stutter is more in boys as compare to girl.
  • Stutter may happen due to have brain injury.
  • Over 3 Millions “American” suffer from stutter.
  • Lots of famous people suffer from stutter.
  • Stuttering may differ from different people
  • Approx 70 million people in the world suffer from Stutter.
  • Stuttering is known as stammering in Britain.
  • Stammer may varies time to time but stutter cann’t.
  • Stutter problem seems all over the world.
  • Stutter may varies from language to language.

Diagnosis of Stuttering

Stutter can be diagnosed by the speech language pathologist (SPL), they can easily examined the degree of the stutter and what kind of  treatment will give to overcome the stutter.

You’ve to consider with a doctor when the following things are happen

  • If you feel the fear of stage or facing difficulties in speaking.
  • When the child starts Stutter after the age of 5 years.
  • If you stuttering more frequently while speaking.
  • When your muscles being tight while speak and create intervention in speaking.

SPL perform some test on you based on the facts or the symptoms they get while acknowledged you and according to it they take the necessary step. If it is not long term then no need to be take any action but it is long term then they use more assessment or observations to remove it.

Treatment for Stuttering

Treatment for stutter will not require from every people who suffer from the stutter. If it happens at the early age it will resolve without any treatment but in the elder age or in the adulthood it required the treatment to resolve it.

Following are some treatment which helpful to resolve the stutter effects.

Speech Therapy

Speech therapy can help to reduce the interruption in speech and improve your child’s self confidence. Speech therapy basically focus on the problem of your child and encourage your child to speak more without any fear in public and individually also. They also monitor the rate of speech and the quality of speech, no of difficult words which are not able to use by the child in normal flow.

In this matter parents can also be helpful by using the therapy technique at home and try to teach the baby how to speak more frequently in the efficient manner.

Fluency shaping therapy

In fluency shaping therapy, try to smooth you speech by practicing in low speed, short phrases and sentences. The short sentences will help to stretch the vowels and consonant at the specific rate and increase your fluency of speech with practicing.

Other treatment

There is no medications by which we can reduce the stutter disorder you only reduce this by doing the physical things. Electronic device may helpful to reduce the stutter effect in the children and some patient will respond more with the electronic device. In the electronic device a voice is play on the background of  ear when child speak quickly and this voice is an altered recording of their voice.

Home remedy to cure Stuttering/Stammering

  • By using Indian gooseberry
  • By eating the mixture of black pepper with butter daily
  • Use the Brahmi oil to overcome the Stutter.
  • Almond, black pepper and sugar candy make a paste of it and lick it in the morning daily on an empty stomach. It will really help for you.
  • Cow Ghee is also helpful in Stutter disorder.
  • Cinnamomum tamala which is also known as tejpata will effecting in cure of stammering.

Top Exercise  to reduce Stammering in children and adults

  • Clearly and loudly pronounce the vowels and consonant
  • Breathing exercise will helpful to reduce the stammering effect. Keep more practice to inhale and exhale deeply.
  • Reading exercise are helpful to recognise the pattern of repetition of words and syllable that cause the stammering. Read a paragraph of any book with put pressure on you to make it right. Just being relax and slowly read the paragraph.